July 18, 2014



In the United States, approximately half of all households pay no federal income tax because their income is too low to trigger tax liability. If you or your family has experienced catastrophic setbacks such as serious illness, extended unemployment, bankruptcy or foreclosure or if you have always been poor, you may find it difficult to envision a future without deprivation or hardship.

But with hard work and determination, you can begin to establish or rebuild a financial foundation. The IRS provides tax credits that reduce the amount of income tax that you owe and deductions that reduce the amount of income you must declare on your tax return. The tax credits and deductions described below represent credits that may be an option for you. For specific questions about your tax situation, contact Optima Tax Relief for a consultation.

Child-Related Tax Credits

Ensuring the health and welfare of your children and finding reliable, affordable child care are essential components of re-establishing stability. The IRS provides three child-related tax breaks: Child Tax Credits, Child and Dependent Care Credits and Additional Child Tax Credits. The first two credits are nonrefundable – which means that you won’t receive a payment from the IRS. Additional Child Tax Credits are refundable – but only if you qualify. Even if you cannot receive a refund, you can significantly reduce your federal income tax burden.

Related article: Kid-Friendly Tax Breaks

Child Tax Credits allow you to reduce your federal income tax by up to $1,000 for each qualifying child. Originally set to expire at the end of 2012, Child Tax Credits were extended permanently through the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, or the “fiscal cliff” deal. The IRS imposes maximum annual income limits above which Child Tax Credits begin to phase out: $55,000 for married taxpayers filing separately, $110,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly and $75,000 for all other taxpayers. (Source: IRS.gov)

There are also six criteria that determine whether a child qualifies for the credit: age, relationship, dependency, citizenship, residence and support.

  • Age: under age 17 at the end of the tax year
  • Relationship: child by birth or adoption, stepchild, foster child, sibling or offspring of any of the previous relatives
  • Dependency: claimed as a dependent on your federal income tax return
  • Citizenship: U.S. citizen, resident national or legal resident alien
  • Residence: lived with you for more than half of the previous year
  • Support: child cannot have provide more than half of his or her own financial support during the previous year

Additional Child Tax Credits. If you had earned income of at least $3,000 during the previous year, would qualify for the full Child Tax Credit but cannot claim the full credit because you don’t owe enough in income tax and filed Form 8812 with your federal income tax return, you may be able to get Additional Child Tax Credits as refundable cash. Under certain circumstances, families with three or more children may claim the credit even if they don’t meet the $3,000 income threshold.

Families with one or two children can collect the lesser of either:

  • Leftover funds from Child Tax Credits;
  • 15 percent of earned income over $3,000;
  • Leftover funds from Child Tax Credits;
  • 15 percent of earned income over $3,000;
  • Total Social Security and Medicare taxes paid minus refunds received from the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC).

Families with three or more children can collect the greater of either:

  • Leftover funds from Child Tax Credits;
  • 15 percent of earned income over $3,000;
  • Total Social Security and Medicare taxes paid minus refunds received from the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC).

Child and Dependent Care Credits allow you to exclude at least part of the costs paid for child and dependent care so that you may work or look for work. The IRS allows taxpayers to apply to $3,000 annually for expenses related to the care of one qualifying dependent, $6,000 for costs applied to care for two or more qualifying dependents or $5,000 for dependent care benefits supplied by an employer toward figuring the credit. Depending on your annual adjusted gross income, you may claim up to 35 percent of qualifying expenses.

Taxpayers must also meet the following criteria to qualify for Child and Dependent Care tax credits:

  • Caretaker cannot be a spouse or parent to the dependent child, to your own child under age 19 or a dependent of you or your spouse.
  • Married taxpayer must file a joint income tax return.
  • Taxpayer identification numbers must be provided for each dependent named on your tax forms.
  • Name, address and taxpayer identification number for care providers must be provided.

Earned Income Tax Credit

The EITC is widely recognized is one of the most effective mechanisms for eliminating poverty ever put in place by the American government. Created in 1975, the EITC allows low-wage earners earn more throughout the year or receive a refund by filing their federal income tax returns. According to a 2005 study from the Center for Budget Priorities, the EITC is especially effective in encouraging single parents to seek work.

Related article: Get Tax Relief With Earned Income Tax Credit

Households with dependent children and single workers between the ages of 25 and 65 with earned income below certain levels may qualify for the EITC. Eligible households may receive cash refunds even if they had no federal tax liability but must file a federal income tax return for the current year. Taxpayers may also claim the EITC for up to three prior years by filing Form 1040X.

Wage earners and self-employed workers with valid Social Security numbers may qualify for the EITC, but individuals in the following categories are not eligible:

  • Married filing separately
  • Filing as a nonresident alien
  • A dependent to another taxpayer
  • Taxpayers filing Form 2555 or Form 2555-EZ related to foreign income
  • Taxpayers with adjusted gross income above specified levels (subject to annual change)
  • Taxpayers with investment income above specified levels (subject to annual change)
  • Taxpayers denied EITC credits since 1996 for reasons other than math errors, unless they filed Form 8862 and received clearance from the IRS

Work-Related Education Credits and Deductions

For many individuals, education and job-related training provides the key to escaping poverty. Some states (such as California) provide work-related tax breaks. The IRS also treats scholarships, grants and qualified employer provided assistance applied toward tuition, books and other educational expenses (but not room and board) as tax-free income.

American Opportunity Credits provide partially refundable credits for the first four years of post-secondary education. Eligible taxpayers may receive up to $2,500 in credits and up to $1,000 in refundable credits. These credits, extended through 2017 by the fiscal cliff deal, replaced the Hope Credit.

Lifetime Learning Credits provide up to $2,000 (up to $4,000 for students in Midwestern disaster areas) in credits per tax return for undergraduate, graduate or professional education or job training. There is no limit in how many years you may claim Lifetime Learning Credits. But you may not claim American Opportunity Credits and Lifetime Learning Credits during the same academic year for a single student.

529 College Savings Plans. In addition to tuition payments, funds from 529 College Savings plans may be used to purchase computers or pay for high-speed Internet access.

Tuition and Fees Deductions can be used to reduce income subject to tax through deductions of up to $4,000 for tuition and related expenses. You may also deduct the lesser of $2,500 or the amount you actually paid in interest for student loan debt from your federal income tax returns.

To qualify for student loan interest deductions you must meet all of the following requirements.

  • Paid student loan interest in the previous tax year
  • Legally obligated to pay student loan interest
  • Did not claim married filing separately status
  • Earned less than the specified maximum gross adjusted income (subject to annual change)
  • Neither you nor your spouse (if married) can be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer

Business Deductions for Educational Expenses. These allow wage earners who itemize deductions  to deduct educational expenses, including industry-related conventions that exceed 2 percent of their adjusted gross income. Self-employed taxpayers may deduct business-related educational and training expenses even without itemizing deductions. Educational expenses must either be required to keep your present job or improve your skills in your present line of work. You may qualify for the deduction even if your program leads to a degree, but not if the program is designed to qualify you for a new line of work.

Deductions for Job Search Expenses

Job hunting can be expensive. Résumés, travel-related expenses, employment agency fees and relocation costs can add up to hundreds or even thousands of dollars. Job hunting expenses related to seeking employment within your present line of work are deductible if they exceed 2 percent of your adjusted gross income. We’ve got an article full of tips on how to deduct job search expenses here.

If you seek employment far from where you live, your travel expenses, lodging and 50 percent of the amount that you spend on meals may be tax deductible. Relocation expenses may also be tax deductible. You cannot deduct job search expenses if you wait too long after leaving your previous job to start looking for a new job, or if you are looking for your very first job. How long is too long? There’s no set time, but if you decide to be a stay at home mom for a few years, then want to get back in the saddle, that’s too long.

As will all deductions and credits, qualifying is complicated and the rules are complex. Get professional advice if you need it; we at Optima Tax Relief are just a call away.

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