My Money

What Should You do if You Owe the IRS Money?

Having a tax liability with the IRS can be stressful to deal with.  It may even sound easier to avoid your debt altogether. For some taxpayers, paying back your balance to the IRS can prove to be difficult, especially if you don’t have the means to do so. You may feel as though you are backed up against a wall and that there is no hope to help resolve your current situation.  However, there are solutions to keep yourself compliant and out of collections with the IRS so you don’t have to live in constant fear that the IRS is coming after you. The IRS offers solutions for those having difficulty paying their balances in full.

Setting up a Payment Plan

It is important to first understand how much you owe. You can verify the amount owed by referring to your tax returns or by directly contacting the IRS to discuss your balance, including any tacked-on penalties and fees.  The IRS will provide you with a 433F form to fill out your income and expenses. When completing the form, be sure to exclude non-allowable expenses, such as credit card payments, pet-related expenses, or magazine subscriptions.  The IRS typically accepts payment agreements if your balance is under $10,000 and the proposed payment will pay the balance in full.  Your agreement is also required to include any accrued interest and/or penalties.

The IRS Offers Hardship Options

For those who are either unable to pay back their tax liability in full with the IRS or don’t have the ability to be on a monthly payment plan due to financial difficulty, the IRS offers hardship options. The IRS has two options available to those who need temporary relief. The first is a Currently Non Collectable agreement. The IRS will review your income, expenses, and assets to see if you are earning very little to no income. Another hardship option the IRS provides is the Partial Pay agreement. This agreement is similar to a regular installment agreement where you would make monthly payments to the IRS. However, with this agreement, you are only paying back part of the taxes you owe over time. The IRS will review this agreement approximately every two years to see if your financial income has changed. If your income has changed or you have started a new job, the IRS will send you a notice informing you that your income reflects that you have the ability to pay and request that you set up a payment plan with them. If you are attempting to request a hardship agreement with the IRS, they will request the following:

  • Last three months’ worth of bank statements 
  • Proof of income for the last three months
  • The market value for all assets
  • A list of everything that a taxpayer may own (Retirement savings, bank accounts, all sources of income, real estate property, vehicle statements, life insurance policies, etc.)

Request for an Extension 

If you do have the ability to pay your balance in full but need some time to get the money together, the IRS will allow you to request a one-time extension. You can request up to 120 days to pay your tax balance in full. It is important to keep in mind that the IRS will apply a 0.5% penalty per month for the unpaid balance and will only allow you to make this extension once. If you do miss the extension date, you will fall back into collections.

The IRS offers an array of options to ensure that you stay compliant and out of collections. If you are having difficulty paying your full tax balance to the IRS right away, it is important to know your options and what you can do to protect yourself. If you are unsure of what to do, you can always speak to a tax relief company such as Optima Tax Relief or the IRS to get a better understanding of what works best for you. 

Optima Tax Relief provides assistance to individuals struggling with unmanageable IRS tax burdens. To assess your tax situation and determine if you qualify for tax relief, contact us for a free consultation.

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What Could Happen If You Don’t File Your Tax Return?

It is not hard to fall behind on your taxes. This can happen for a number of different reasons, such as you were unable to afford any tax services, you simply forgot about the tax deadline, or you suffered a serious illness which left you unable to file your tax return. It can be easy to avoid filing your tax return and ignore any serious repercussions – until the IRS starts sending you notices informing you of your unfiled tax years or a delinquent debt you have failed to pay. The IRS has the ability to take action against you for failure to file so it is important to know what the possible consequences could be for not filing your tax returns. 

The IRS can file a substitute return for you

The IRS can file a Substitute for Return, or SFR, on your behalf if they notice a failure to file for any tax year or years. The IRS does not file an SFR as a courtesy for those who fail to file their tax return and will not include any exemptions or deductions. Because of this, filed SFRs can reflect that a taxpayer owes a tax liability. The IRS will also send out an informative collection notice stating that a substitute return was filed or if there is a tax balance associated with the SFR.

The IRS has no time limit to collect from you

When it comes to the IRS taking collection action, the IRS has no timeline as to when they can stop. Once the IRS assesses a balance against you, they can garnish your wages, levy your bank accounts, and place liens on your physical assets. Just because you have past tax years that are unfiled, it does not mean the IRS has forgotten. It could even mean that the IRS will have the ability to hold you liable for your tax balance for up to 10 years from the date that your balance was assessed. 

Failure to file your tax return could be considered a crime

For some taxpayers, failing to file your tax return could mean getting in serious trouble. The IRS could consider this a crime and assume that you are evading the liability that they have assessed on your behalf. Consequences for not filing your tax return could mean jail time or fines as high as $250,000. 

Why it is beneficial to file your missing tax return

Filing all outstanding tax returns is important in order to avoid having the IRS take collection action against you. Although there is not a time limit for you to file any past tax years, the IRS does put a limit on receiving a refund for a previous tax return. The IRS also allows you to collect on a tax refund for up to three years from the due date of your return.

Filing your tax returns may not be the most exciting thing to do and some may even dread the filing season as it comes every year. Regardless of how you feel about having to file, it is a requirement in order to stay compliant and out of collections with the IRS. If you do have unfiled tax years, it can be beneficial to speak with a tax attorney or a tax resolution company in order to resolve any outstanding debt you have for the unfiled years or any tax debt that was assessed against you when the IRS filed an SFR for you. 

Optima Tax Relief provides assistance to individuals struggling with unmanageable IRS tax burdens. To assess your tax situation and determine if you qualify for tax relief, contact us for a free consultation.

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Common Mistakes Taxpayers Make when Filing their Tax Return

Tax season can be stressful, especially when you’re unsure if the information you provided on your tax return was accurate. The IRS encounters errors on a regular basis, often causing delays when processing your tax return or sending your tax refund on time. There are many of these common mistakes taxpayers make when filing their tax returns that lead to these delays.  Here are some ways you can avoid those mistakes and ensure that when you file, you file properly.

Make sure to include all income on your tax return

Many taxpayers underreport their income. This is usually an innocent oversight, such as forgetting to include income from rental property, retirement income, 1099 income, stocks, or other supplementary incomes. It’s important to remember that your income is directly reported to the IRS, so accidentally leaving out any source of income could leave you at risk to be audited. Reporting all income when filing your taxes is necessary for your tax return to properly process and be accepted with the IRS.

Choosing the right filing status

Failing to select the correct filing status on your tax return could potentially cause future tax problems. For example, some married taxpayers will choose to file single when they should have chosen between Married Filing Separate or Married Filing Joint. This could raise a red flag with the IRS if a person repeatedly selects the wrong filing status. Don’t forget – if you are married but living separately, you can still claim single on your tax return. 

Know who you can claim on your tax return

Claiming ineligible dependents on a tax return could also signal a red flag with the IRS. The IRS will only allow you to claim dependents if you are supporting the person that is being claimed and may even ask you to provide substantiation to prove it. Make sure to keep any receipts as proof, because if you are audited and you cannot provide supporting documentation, penalties and interest will be added to whatever balance may be owed – or even be deducted from your refund.

Double-check your tax return

Make sure to never use anything but your full name when filing your taxes. Using a nickname could cause your tax return to be rejected or in a worst-case scenario; the IRS could consider it identity theft if you file your return with your full name the following year. Some other common mistakes that could be avoided by simply double-checking the information provided include, failing to sign your tax return when mailing it off to the IRS or placing incorrect bank account numbers on your return. While these mistakes may seem minor and relatively insignificant, they can cause major problems for your tax returns for years to come.

Always be mindful of how you are filing your taxes and make sure to check your tax return for accuracy before sending it to the IRS. Taking just a few minutes to verify your work can prevent these simple mistakes, and help you get the most out of your tax return.

Optima Tax Relief provides assistance to individuals struggling with unmanageable IRS tax burdens. To assess your tax situation and determine if you qualify for tax relief, contact us for a free consultation.

By |My Money, Tax, Tax Planning, Tax Returns|Comments Off on Common Mistakes Taxpayers Make when Filing their Tax Return

Tips to Help Understand and Avoid Tax Scams

You’ve just received a notice from the IRS.  It indicates that, after multiple attempts to get in touch with you, they are going to levy you. You start to panic; you don’t remember the IRS ever attempting to reach out to you.  Maybe you’ve never even owed a tax liability. After calling the number on the notice, the agent on the line tells you to pay up – or face the consequences. Afraid that the IRS will levy your bank account – and possibly seize your house – you provide your payment information over the phone. You check your bank account and your entire savings are gone. You contact the number again, but the line has been disconnected. When you do get in touch with a real IRS Agent, they tell you that you never owed a balance with them in the first place.  You were just scammed.

Millions of Americans will receive communication from scammers impersonating the IRS, using scare tactics to get people to fork over their hard earned money.  These scammers will attempt to take your money by calling your personal phone, sending malicious emails, and sending fake letters like the one in the example above.  Below we will break down these different forms of communication and the different tactics they will take to gain your trust and steal your money.

One of the most common forms of tax scams is by leaving automated voicemails on your personal phone that tell you the IRS will be collecting on owed taxes or that there is a warrant for your arrest. In some cases, they will even mirror their number to make it appear similar to an actual IRS number. These fraudsters will most likely ask for cash payments sent to a temporary address or try to get you to tell them your social security number. Some may even ask for your bank account number directly in an attempt to bleed your account dry.

Sending false emails is a tactic known as “phishing.” When people click on a link in these emails, it uploads a virus that steals your sensitive information, allowing them access to your passwords, and even your bank accounts and credit cards.

Fake IRS notices are sent in an attempt to have you call the number listed on the letter.  Once they have you on the line, they bully you just so they can gain access to your personal information. The letter itself may look like it was directly sent to you by an assigned revenue officer from the IRS, and it can be difficult to tell the difference.

There are ways to protect yourself from scammers. It is important to know that the IRS will never ask for your bank account or card information over the phone, nor will they ever demand you to pay back your supposed balance immediately without first providing you with balance due notices in the mail. The IRS will also never ask you for your payment in one specific or unusual way, such as with gift cards or prepaid cards.  In addition, if the IRS is claiming that there are discrepancies on your tax return and you feel as though their claim is wrong, the IRS will allow you to provide proof your tax return is accurate. Finally, the IRS will never call you and tell you that they are going to have you arrested or sued for not paying your tax liability back to them.

It is important to always verify where the source of notices, phone calls or emails you receive are coming from. Owing the IRS can be frightening, but what’s even scarier is knowing that there are scammers preying on taxpayers, trying to steal from them. Always be cautious and aware of your tax situation and be sure to verify who you’re speaking with and where your money is going. You can contact the IRS directly at 1-800-829-1040 or you can go directly onto the IRS’s website to learn more about preventative measures to take to ensure you won’t get scammed.

Optima Tax Relief provides assistance to individuals struggling with unmanageable IRS tax burdens. To assess your tax situation and determine if you qualify for tax relief, contact us for a free consultation.

ACA Increases Penalties for Uninsured Americans

Millions of previously uninsured Americans have obtained health insurance coverage, thanks to the Affordable Care Act – commonly known as Obamacare. However, many individuals and households remain uninsured. Many of those taxpayers face significant financial penalties from the IRS for failing to obtain insurance under the individual mandate of the ACA – unless they can claim an exemption.AffordableCareAct

The Penalty Wasn’t Really $95 

During 2014, the first year health insurance coverage was required under the ACA, many individuals chose to remain uninsured. They figured that paying $95 as a penalty for failing to obtain and maintain coverage would be far less expensive than the premium for any policy they could obtain. Many people experienced sticker shock when they realized how large their penalties would be.

That’s because the penalty for 2014 wasn’t $95. The actual penalty was $95 for each adult age 18 or over plus $47.50 for each child under 18, with a maximum penalty of $285 — or 1% of the total household income above the threshold for filing federal tax returns, whichever was larger. The maximum penalty for all households was capped at the national annual cost of an individual bronze tier insurance plan in 2014, which was $2,448, regardless of income and household size.

For example, the penalty for a single taxpayer who earned $45,000 in 2014 and remained uninsured for the entire year would be $348.50. That’s the result of subtracting the minimum income for being required to file a federal income tax return ($10,150 in 2014) from $45,000, for a result of $34,850, and then multiplying that figure by 1%. Ouch.

Penalty Increases for 2015 and 2016

afforadable-care-act-penaltiesIndividual mandate penalties for 2015 are even higher, increasing to $325 per adult plus $162.50 per child, for a maximum of $975 – or 2% of household income, whichever is larger. As in 2014, the maximum penalty for all households has been capped at the 2015 national annual cost of an individual bronze tier plan.

Remaining uninsured in 2016 will take an even bigger financial bite out of taxpayers’ pocketbooks. The penalty has been set for a hefty $695 per adult and $347.50 per child, with a maximum per household of $2,085 dollars. As an alternative, the penalty will be 2.5% of household income, with a maximum of the average annual premium of an individual Bronze tier health insurance plan sold through the marketplace. Taxpayers will pay whichever calculation results in the higher penalty.

Exemptions to the Individual Mandate Penalty

Taxpayers hoping to avoid the individual mandate penalty by obtaining health insurance coverage late in the year will most likely only be able to reduce the penalty rather than eliminate it. However, there are a number of exemptions based on personal circumstances and financial hardships that allow some taxpayers to avoid the penalty. To claim total or partial exemptions, taxpayers must file an application with Taxpayers whose applications are approved receive an Electronic Confirmation Number (ECN) to claim the exemption on their federal income tax returns.

Personal Exemptionsexempt-tax-penalty

The list below represents an overview of personal exemptions to the individual mandate penalty. A full list of exemptions is available at Coverage: Lowest-price Marketplace plans exceed 9.5% of adjusted gross income, or employer-provided healthcare plans exceed 8% of AGI.

  • Low Income: Individuals or households with incomes below the minimum threshold for filing federal income tax returns are automatically exempt.
  • Short Coverage Gap: Gaps in coverage of less than three consecutive months are exempt. Taxpayers who purchased coverage anytime during open enrollment in 2014 are also exempt; even they remained uninsured until May 1.
  • Religious Conscience: This exemption is administered through the Social Security Administration.
  • Health Care Sharing Ministry: Members of recognized health care sharing ministries are also exempt.
  • Citizens Living Abroad: U.S. citizens who reside abroad at least 330 days during a 12 month period are exempt.
  • Participants in AmeriCorps State and National, VISTA, or NCCC: Participants with short term program provided coverage or self-funded coverage are exempt.
  • Undocumented: Undocumented residents are not eligible to purchase insurance through the exchanges and are exempt from the penalty.affordable-care-act
  • Incarcerated: Incarcerated individuals are exempt.
  • Native Americans: Members of federally recognized tribes are exempt.

Hardship Exemptions

For most hardship exemptions, taxpayers must file supporting documentation; others are automatic. Some taxpayers who qualify for hardship exemptions may be allowed to purchase catastrophic health insurance policies; others may qualify for a special enrollment period outside of open enrollment. The list below briefly describes hardship exemptions along with required documentation. A complete description of hardship exemptions and relevant forms are available through


Dealing with Penalties Now – and Avoiding Future Penalties

maxresdefaultThe best way to avoid the individual mandate penalty is to obtain health insurance coverage – either through the Marketplace, an employer or another health insurance plan that meets the minimum guidelines for the ACA. Many taxpayers who obtain insurance through the Marketplace are eligible for tax subsidies that significantly reduce premium payments or provide refundable tax credits. Other taxpayers will qualify for an additional cost-sharing subsidy that can be applied to Silver tier plans to lower the overall cost of deductibles, copays and coinsurance.

Individuals who have questions about their eligibility for tax credits, the individual mandate or any penalties they might owe can obtain assistance through   Specially trained Navigators can also assist individuals one-on-one, either in person or over the phone, with selecting appropriate coverage. Taxpayers facing large individual mandate penalties should consult with an accountant or with an attorney specializing in tax law.

Suffered a Loss Due to Theft or Catastrophe? Uncle Sam Will Give You a Break

Losing your property through theft or catastrophe is tough. If your losses were extensive, you may wonder if you will ever recover.

While nothing can completely negate the effects of a natural disaster or theft, you may be able to get some relief from Uncle Sam. Even if your losses are greater than your income for the year, you might still qualify for a tax break.

Determining Your Loss

During the past year a hurricane or tornado blew through your town and pretty much leveled everything. Fortunately you and your family were all right, but you lost everything. And you have insurance, but your policy only covers the fair market value of your items.

The fair market value means you’ll only get the depreciated value of your items rather than what you paid for them, or what you would have to pay to replace them with new items.

In this case, it would be unlikely that you would qualify for an additional tax deduction. The IRS only allows deductions that equal the value of your items at the time that they were stolen or destroyed rather than the replacement value for new items. (

But if you had no insurance, or if your insurance carried a very high deductible, then you most likely would qualify for a tax deduction. Likewise, if your car was stolen or your house was burglarized and your family’s heirloom jewelry was stolen, you would likely qualify if you were not otherwise compensated for your loss.

Calculating Your Deduction

Once you have calculated the fair market value of your lost or stolen items, less any reimbursement you may have received from your insurance company, your work is not done.

You must deduct $100 from the total amount of your losses for each incident of catastrophe or theft. For instance, if your house suffered major damage from a tornado and your car was stolen during the same calendar year, you would subtract $100 for each incident from amount of your losses for a total of $200.

To claim a tax deduction for theft or catastrophic loss, you must itemize rather than taking the standard deduction. This means completing a separate Form 4684 for each incident of theft or catastrophic loss and entering the appropriate total amount on Schedule A, which you would then file with your federal income tax return.

Even then, you will only be able to claim the amount of your losses that exceed 10 percent of you adjusted gross income for the year. As you can see, your losses would truly have to be substantial to qualify for the deduction.

Net Operating Losses (NOL)

If your losses from a natural disaster were truly catastrophic, or if a burglar cleaned out your entire house, it is conceivable that your losses could actually exceed your income. In such cases, you would record a Net Operating Loss (NOL) for the year. Under ordinary circumstances, reporting an NOL is limited to earnings from business or self employment. But this limitation is waived for losses that occur due to a casualty such as a natural disaster.

Any NOL that you have would first apply to the tax year in which your losses occurred. Any amount that exceeds your taxable income for the year can be carried forward or carried backward to reduce your taxable income for past or future years. NOLs resulting from natural disasters can be applied up to three years prior to the present tax year and up to 20 years forward from the current tax year. (

Getting Back What You Have Lost

Properly calculating your losses from a natural disaster or theft can be complex. If you have questions, consult with a tax professional. Our experts at Optima Tax Relief can make sure that you receive the largest deduction to which you are entitled.

3 Easy Ways To Teach Kids About Taxes

Actor and comedian Bill Murray joked that “the best way to teach your kids about taxes is by eating 30 percent of their ice cream.” While the line is funny, actually removing a third of the ice cream from your child’s dish is not the best way to educate your children about how taxes work. In fact, you’ll probably just upset them.

You can help your kids understand how the tax system operates through simple explanations, shared activities – and by imposing your own “income” tax system at home.

1. Use Receipts to Explain Sales and Property Tax

Help your kids understand that taxes make it possible for your town to have a library, or that money from taxes pays for fire trucks. For instance, if you have small children, save the receipt the next time you buy them a treat. Show your kids the receipt and point out the price of the treat along with the smaller number. Explain that the smaller number represents sales tax, and that that money allows states, counties and cities to pay for important things like schools and playgrounds.

2. Charge Your Kids “Income” Tax on Their Allowance

Explain the concept of collecting money for a fixed period of time, and then spending that money on something specific. No, you don’t have to force your kids to help you complete your income tax return or drag them along to your accountant’s office. Instead, use examples that relate to their lives.

For example, does your teen want to do something expensive, like share a limo with friends on prom night? Collect a small amount of “taxes” – say, 10 percent – from your child’s allowance for from money he earns doing chores. When the time comes for your child to pay for his share of the limo, return the money you have collected as a tax “refund.” Remind him that the windfall is actually his own money, not a gift.

With a younger child, come up with a goal to work towards together, like a surprise gift for Mom or Dad. As they earn money through chores, put their earnings in a clear jar with the tax in a separate jar right next to it. Say, for every dollar earned, 10 cents goes to the tax jar. Once the earnings jar reaches the target amount and it’s time to go shopping, let her spend the tax money on herself. Again, make sure she knows it’s always been her money.

3. Collect Taxes as Punishment, Then Reap the Rewards Together

A tax jar can accomplish dual purposes by helping kids of all ages understand how taxes work and as a form of discipline. Establish a set amount of “taxes” children must pay for failing to clean their rooms or swearing.

Put the money collected in a clear location so that your kids know that you’re not just taking their money away and spending it on yourself. Every few months, use the money collected in the tax jar for a family activity, such as a special dinner. Point out to kids that different governments collect taxes to improve everyone’s lives.

Teach Kids Now, so They Aren’t Surprised Later

Many young people have their first encounter with taxes when they receive their first paychecks from their first “real” jobs. They may be disappointed or even angry about the money that is missing from their paychecks. The activities above can prepare your kids for the reality of payroll taxes and help them avoid that particular form of sticker shock.

How to Use Tax Breaks to (Re) Establish Financial Independence

In the United States, approximately half of all households pay no federal income tax because their income is too low to trigger tax liability. If you or your family has experienced catastrophic setbacks such as serious illness, extended unemployment, bankruptcy or foreclosure or if you have always been poor, you may find it difficult to envision a future without deprivation or hardship.

But with hard work and determination, you can begin to establish or rebuild a financial foundation. The IRS provides tax credits that reduce the amount of income tax that you owe and deductions that reduce the amount of income you must declare on your tax return. The tax credits and deductions described below represent credits that may be an option for you. For specific questions about your tax situation, contact Optima Tax Relief for a consultation.

Child-Related Tax Credits

Ensuring the health and welfare of your children and finding reliable, affordable child care are essential components of re-establishing stability. The IRS provides three child-related tax breaks: Child Tax Credits, Child and Dependent Care Credits and Additional Child Tax Credits. The first two credits are nonrefundable – which means that you won’t receive a payment from the IRS. Additional Child Tax Credits are refundable – but only if you qualify. Even if you cannot receive a refund, you can significantly reduce your federal income tax burden.

Related article: Kid-Friendly Tax Breaks

Child Tax Credits allow you to reduce your federal income tax by up to $1,000 for each qualifying child. Originally set to expire at the end of 2012, Child Tax Credits were extended permanently through the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, or the “fiscal cliff” deal. The IRS imposes maximum annual income limits above which Child Tax Credits begin to phase out: $55,000 for married taxpayers filing separately, $110,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly and $75,000 for all other taxpayers. (Source:

There are also six criteria that determine whether a child qualifies for the credit: age, relationship, dependency, citizenship, residence and support.

  • Age: under age 17 at the end of the tax year
  • Relationship: child by birth or adoption, stepchild, foster child, sibling or offspring of any of the previous relatives
  • Dependency: claimed as a dependent on your federal income tax return
  • Citizenship: U.S. citizen, resident national or legal resident alien
  • Residence: lived with you for more than half of the previous year
  • Support: child cannot have provide more than half of his or her own financial support during the previous year

Additional Child Tax Credits. If you had earned income of at least $3,000 during the previous year, would qualify for the full Child Tax Credit but cannot claim the full credit because you don’t owe enough in income tax and filed Form 8812 with your federal income tax return, you may be able to get Additional Child Tax Credits as refundable cash. Under certain circumstances, families with three or more children may claim the credit even if they don’t meet the $3,000 income threshold.

Families with one or two children can collect the lesser of either:

  • Leftover funds from Child Tax Credits;
  • 15 percent of earned income over $3,000;
  • Leftover funds from Child Tax Credits;
  • 15 percent of earned income over $3,000;
  • Total Social Security and Medicare taxes paid minus refunds received from the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC).

Families with three or more children can collect the greater of either:

  • Leftover funds from Child Tax Credits;
  • 15 percent of earned income over $3,000;
  • Total Social Security and Medicare taxes paid minus refunds received from the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC).

Child and Dependent Care Credits allow you to exclude at least part of the costs paid for child and dependent care so that you may work or look for work. The IRS allows taxpayers to apply to $3,000 annually for expenses related to the care of one qualifying dependent, $6,000 for costs applied to care for two or more qualifying dependents or $5,000 for dependent care benefits supplied by an employer toward figuring the credit. Depending on your annual adjusted gross income, you may claim up to 35 percent of qualifying expenses.

Taxpayers must also meet the following criteria to qualify for Child and Dependent Care tax credits:

  • Caretaker cannot be a spouse or parent to the dependent child, to your own child under age 19 or a dependent of you or your spouse.
  • Married taxpayer must file a joint income tax return.
  • Taxpayer identification numbers must be provided for each dependent named on your tax forms.
  • Name, address and taxpayer identification number for care providers must be provided.

Earned Income Tax Credit

The EITC is widely recognized is one of the most effective mechanisms for eliminating poverty ever put in place by the American government. Created in 1975, the EITC allows low-wage earners earn more throughout the year or receive a refund by filing their federal income tax returns. According to a 2005 study from the Center for Budget Priorities, the EITC is especially effective in encouraging single parents to seek work.

Related article: Get Tax Relief With Earned Income Tax Credit

Households with dependent children and single workers between the ages of 25 and 65 with earned income below certain levels may qualify for the EITC. Eligible households may receive cash refunds even if they had no federal tax liability but must file a federal income tax return for the current year. Taxpayers may also claim the EITC for up to three prior years by filing Form 1040X.

Wage earners and self-employed workers with valid Social Security numbers may qualify for the EITC, but individuals in the following categories are not eligible:

  • Married filing separately
  • Filing as a nonresident alien
  • A dependent to another taxpayer
  • Taxpayers filing Form 2555 or Form 2555-EZ related to foreign income
  • Taxpayers with adjusted gross income above specified levels (subject to annual change)
  • Taxpayers with investment income above specified levels (subject to annual change)
  • Taxpayers denied EITC credits since 1996 for reasons other than math errors, unless they filed Form 8862 and received clearance from the IRS

Work-Related Education Credits and Deductions

For many individuals, education and job-related training provides the key to escaping poverty. Some states (such as California) provide work-related tax breaks. The IRS also treats scholarships, grants and qualified employer provided assistance applied toward tuition, books and other educational expenses (but not room and board) as tax-free income.

American Opportunity Credits provide partially refundable credits for the first four years of post-secondary education. Eligible taxpayers may receive up to $2,500 in credits and up to $1,000 in refundable credits. These credits, extended through 2017 by the fiscal cliff deal, replaced the Hope Credit.

Lifetime Learning Credits provide up to $2,000 (up to $4,000 for students in Midwestern disaster areas) in credits per tax return for undergraduate, graduate or professional education or job training. There is no limit in how many years you may claim Lifetime Learning Credits. But you may not claim American Opportunity Credits and Lifetime Learning Credits during the same academic year for a single student.

529 College Savings Plans. In addition to tuition payments, funds from 529 College Savings plans may be used to purchase computers or pay for high-speed Internet access.

Tuition and Fees Deductions can be used to reduce income subject to tax through deductions of up to $4,000 for tuition and related expenses. You may also deduct the lesser of $2,500 or the amount you actually paid in interest for student loan debt from your federal income tax returns.

To qualify for student loan interest deductions you must meet all of the following requirements.

  • Paid student loan interest in the previous tax year
  • Legally obligated to pay student loan interest
  • Did not claim married filing separately status
  • Earned less than the specified maximum gross adjusted income (subject to annual change)
  • Neither you nor your spouse (if married) can be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer

Business Deductions for Educational Expenses. These allow wage earners who itemize deductions  to deduct educational expenses, including industry-related conventions that exceed 2 percent of their adjusted gross income. Self-employed taxpayers may deduct business-related educational and training expenses even without itemizing deductions. Educational expenses must either be required to keep your present job or improve your skills in your present line of work. You may qualify for the deduction even if your program leads to a degree, but not if the program is designed to qualify you for a new line of work.

Deductions for Job Search Expenses

Job hunting can be expensive. Résumés, travel-related expenses, employment agency fees and relocation costs can add up to hundreds or even thousands of dollars. Job hunting expenses related to seeking employment within your present line of work are deductible if they exceed 2 percent of your adjusted gross income. We’ve got an article full of tips on how to deduct job search expenses here.

If you seek employment far from where you live, your travel expenses, lodging and 50 percent of the amount that you spend on meals may be tax deductible. Relocation expenses may also be tax deductible. You cannot deduct job search expenses if you wait too long after leaving your previous job to start looking for a new job, or if you are looking for your very first job. How long is too long? There’s no set time, but if you decide to be a stay at home mom for a few years, then want to get back in the saddle, that’s too long.

As will all deductions and credits, qualifying is complicated and the rules are complex. Get professional advice if you need it; we at Optima Tax Relief are just a call away.

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Facebook Takes on Money Transferring Services

Have you received an appeal from a Nigerian prince, promising you his undying gratitude if you would deposit a large sum of his money into your bank account? As a reward for your kindness, you would only be obliged to return a portion of the deposit, retaining the rest as payment for services rendered. Scams like these are why it is so difficult to do business even with honest individuals in places like Nigeria.

The Sound of Money

If Facebook has its way, more than 4 million Nigerian users could enjoy the convenience of money transfers that citizens in the US, Europe and the rest of the developed world take for granted. Along with scams, corruption and money laundering have scared many mainline banks away from doing business in places like Nigeria, regardless of potential profit.

Related: The IRS is on Facebook, spying on your profiles.

And the potential profit is indeed huge. Taavet Hinrikus, co-founder of London based TransferWise, commented to the Guardian that the World Bank estimates the remittance market alone to be valued at $500 billion. Add transfers between the developed and developing worlds, and the potential value jumps to between $5 trillion to $10 trillion.

Not So Far Fetched

Facebook already has skin in the monetary transfer game, through having achieved vested status as a bank in Luxembourg. Facebook is also involved in money transfers within the US through its system of payments between users through popular apps such as Candy Crush and Farmville. Transactions to games publishers and other apps utilized within Facebook generated $2.1 billion in 2013, of which Facebook claims a hefty 30 percent.

Given these circumstances, it is not so far fetched to consider that Facebook may well be close to achieving regulatory approval for “e-credit” status in tax-friendly Ireland. Obtaining “e-credit” status there would allow Facebook to facilitate credit transfers between users throughout Europe, which the recipients could exchange for cash. This system would reportedly use “passporting,” which allows digital payments to be made to and from users in European Union member states. The potential for profit seems to be attractive enough for Facebook to be willing to subject itself to regulation as a bank in Ireland to achieve a foothold in the market.

In addition to TransferWise, Facebook has reportedly been involved in discussions with Azimo and Moni Technologies. These two companies are, like TransferWise, London based startups operating in the money transfer arena. And what about developing markets like India and Africa, where infrastructure for mobile phones has far outstripped the capacity for land lines? The potential reach of that market – nearly 2 billion, according to Brian Blau, a director from the research firm Gartner.

Slicing the Pie

All of this would put Facebook in direct competition with firms like PayPal, Google Wallet and Amazon. But concentrating on money transfers rather than payment systems would allow Facebook to operate more like Western Union while avoiding the competition of a crowded European field. There are no disclosed plans at present by Facebook to extend money transfer services to Nigeria. But that Nigerian prince may have a proper means o dispensing his funds world wide, sooner rather than later.

How to Spot a Shady Tax Preparer

According to the IRS, about 60 percent of taxpayers use tax professionals each year. While most are honest and well-trained, this is an area ripe for fraud if you choose poorly. After all, getting your taxes done by someone else means handing over a lot of personal information, your Social Security number (the Holy Grail for thieves), and those of your spouse and dependents, possibly your birth date, and your bank account information. The IRS wants you to remember, even if you hire someone to do your taxes, you bear the responsibility for what is in your return.

Until recently, anyone could hang out a shingle calling themselves a tax/financial professional, with zero experience or qualifications.  That’s why the IRS now requires tax preparers to get an IRS-issued Preparer Tax Identification Number (PTIN).  This helps, but where thieves smell money, there will always be unscrupulous people who slither past the rules. No determined thief is going to let a little thing like an IRS requirement stop him or her from scamming you.

But it’s not too difficult nowadays to spot a shady tax preparer and avoid them altogether.

Here are three red flags the IRS wants you to watch for:

  1. Is the preparer willing to provide you with his or her PTIN?
  2. Is the preparer willing to sign your return and provide his/her PTIN?
  3. Will the preparer ask you to sign an incomplete return? The IRS warns, a reputable preparer will never do this.

If the answers to any of these questions are unsatisfactory, don’t walk away. Run!

Others Points to Watch For

Ask the preparer about his or her qualifications.

  • Where did you get your training, and have you stayed up with the tax changes through continuing education?
  • How long have you been doing this?
  • What professional groups do you belong to?

Get a full list of the fees you will pay.

  • A reputable preparer will be upfront about fees.  You need to be upfront too, by explaining the extent of your return. If you have multiple small businesses, special credits which require extra forms, or a fistful of W-2s, say so.
  • Your fee should never be a percentage of your expected refund.  That encourages unscrupulous preparers to fraudulently jack up your refund. The preparer may initiate the fraud, but again, you are ultimately responsible and will be left holding the bag.
  • What is the expected time frame till your return is done?
  • Will the preparer review the completed return with you?
  • Will he/she be available for questions after the tax season?
  • If you are due a refund, will it be issued in your name?  Beware a preparer who says the refund will be issued to him/her, and you will be paid in cash. There’s no way for you to know if the refund was actually much larger than what you are paid.  If it’s a cash-only set up, say no and find another preparer.

Your prospective tax preparer needs to pass your inspection. If you feel uncomfortable during the initial meeting, trust your instincts and go elsewhere. You can do a simple background check of a preparer by contacting your local Better Business Bureau. If you have doubts, check the standing of a CPA by contacting the state board of accountancy. For attorneys, contact your state bar association, and for Enrolled Agents, check with the IRS Office of Enrollment.

You can read more about how to spot a shady tax preparer by checking with the IRS. If you feel you have stumbled upon a bad apple tax preparer, you can report the individual with the IRS by clicking here.

“If you feel that you have been a victim of a bad tax preparer or you feel that the IRS may flag a return you filed for inaccuracies, you may want to contact a professional to review your situation,” says David King, President of Optima Tax Relief. “Remember, the IRS is much more accommodating to individuals/businesses that voluntarily amend a past return as opposed to them amending it themselves.”

Photo: Commercial Appeal